The History of the Beautiful Cascade Water Feature at Chatsworth

At the back of Chatsworth House, the Cascade garden water fountain creates a stunning focal point to the gardens. For 200 yards towards the dwelling is a collection of twenty-four irregularly positioned stone steps extending all the way down the hillside. ft_151__48029.jpg The Cascade, also entirely gravity fed, is primarily based on a 17th century French format. Remaining unaltered since its inception, this water fountain was originally created for the first Duke of Devonshire in 1696. The Cascade House stands at the peak of the fountain where water flows downward. Marine creatures in bas-relief embellish the external part of the residence which is a small building. Water pressure to the Cascade can easily be boosted on certain situations, causing the Cascade House to become a part of the Cascade display, as water runs through conduits on its rooftop and from the mouths of its carved marine creatures, before carrying on along the Cascade. Providing a great and relaxing accompaniment to a stroll through the gardens, the slight contrast in measurement of every single step signifies that the sound of the water cascading downward fluctuates as it falls along the Cascades. In 2004, Chatsworth's Cascade, was voted England's best water feature.

Where did Fountains Come From?

A fountain, an incredible piece of engineering, not only supplies drinking water as it pours into a basin, it can also propel water high into the air for a noteworthy effect.

The primary purpose of a fountain was originally strictly practical. Inhabitants of urban areas, townships and small towns used them as a source of drinking water and a place to wash, which meant that fountains needed to be linked to nearby aqueduct or spring.

Until the late 19th, century most water fountains functioned using the force of gravity to allow water to flow or jet into the air, therefore, they needed a supply of water such as a reservoir or aqueduct located higher than the fountain. Acting as an element of decoration and celebration, fountains also generated clean, fresh drinking water. Roman fountains often depicted imagery of animals or heroes made of metal or stone masks. During the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden planners included fountains to create mini variations of the gardens of paradise. The fountains found in the Gardens of Versailles were meant to show the power over nature held by King Louis XIV of France. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the construction of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts entered the city of Rome

Urban fountains made at the end of the nineteenth served only as decorative and celebratory ornaments since indoor plumbing provided the essential drinking water. Amazing water effects and recycled water were made possible by switching the power of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Nowadays, fountains adorn public areas and are used to honor individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

The Distribution of Water Fountain Manufacturing Knowledge in Europe

Spreading useful hydraulic information and water feature design ideas all through Europe was accomplished with the published documents and illustrated books of the time. An unnamed French water feature engineer became an globally renowned hydraulic pioneer in the late 1500's. By creating gardens and grottoes with integrated and clever water features, he began his occupation in Italy by receiving imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. In France, near the end of his life, he penned “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a publication that turned into the primary text on hydraulic technology and engineering. Modernizing vital hydraulic discoveries of classical antiquity, the book also details contemporary hydraulic technologies. Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, had his work highlighted and these included a mechanical way to move water. Sunlight heating water in a pair of containers unseen in a room next to an decorative fountain was displayed in one illustration. The hot liquid expands and subsequently ascends and shuts the pipes consequently activating the water fountain. The book also covers garden ponds, water wheels, water feature creations.

Contemporary Statuary in Old Greece

A good number of sculptors were remunerated by the temples to adorn the elaborate pillars and archways with renderings of the gods up until the period came to a close and countless Greeks began to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred, when it became more typical for sculptors to represent everyday men and women as well. Often times, a interpretation of wealthy families' forefathers would be commissioned to be located inside huge familial burial tombs, and portraiture, which would be copied by the Romans upon their conquering of Greek civilization, also became customary. Over the many years of The Greek Classical period, a time of visual progress, the use of sculpture and many other art forms transformed, so it is inaccurate to say that the arts delivered merely one purpose.

Greek sculpture is perhaps fascinating to us nowadays seeing that it was an avant-garde experiment in the ancient world, so it doesn't make a difference whether its original purpose was religious zeal or artistic pleasure.

Tall Fountains Around the World

Known as the King Fahd Fountain (1985) found in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, it is the highest continuously functioning fountain in the world. It propels water reaching 260 meters (853 feet) above the Red Sea.

The World Cup Fountain located in the Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002), comes in 2nd place with water jetting up 202 meters (663 feet).

Located near the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri, is third placed Gateway Geyser (1995). With water reaching 192 meters (630 feet) in the air, this fountain is the tallest in the United States.

The next on the list is Port Fountain located in Karachi, Pakistan which rockets water 190 meters (620 feet) into the heavens.

Number 4 is Water at Fountain Park (1970) situated in Fountain Hills, Arizona - it can reach up to 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are running, even though it typically only reaches up to 91 meters (300 feet).

The Dubai Fountain made its first appearance in 2009 close to the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa. It performs every 1/2 hour to previously recorded songs and shoots water up to 73 meters (240 feet) in height -it also has built in extreme shooters, though only used during special events, which reach 150 meters (490 feet) in height.

Number 7 is the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, finished in 1970, propelling water 147 meters (482 feet) high.

And at #8, we have the the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951), measuring 140 meters (460 feet).

Gian Bernini's Water Features

There are many renowned Roman water features in its city center. One of the best ever sculptors and designers of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed, conceptualized and constructed nearly all of them. Also a city designer, he had abilities as a fountain designer, and traces of his life's work are obvious throughout the streets of Rome. Eventually transferring to Rome to fully express their artwork, primarily in the shape of public water features, Bernini’s father, a famed Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son.

The juvenile Bernini was an great employee and won encouragement and backing of important painters as well as popes. His sculpture was initially his claim to celebrity. An authority in historical Greek architecture, he used this knowledge as a base and melded it flawlessly with Roman marble, most notably in the Vatican. Although many artists had an influence on his work, Michelangelo had the most profound effect.


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