The Circulation of Water Fountain Engineering Knowledge in Europe

ft-245__45576.jpg Instrumental to the development of scientific technology were the printed letters and illustrated books of the day. They were also the principal means of transferring useful hydraulic information and fountain design suggestions all through Europe. In the later part of the 1500's, a French fountain architect (whose name has been lost) was the globally distinguished hydraulics innovator. With imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he began his career in Italy, building knowledge in garden design and grottoes with incorporated and imaginative water features. The publication, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” authored towards the end of his lifetime in France, turned out to be the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Modernizing principal hydraulic discoveries of classical antiquity, the publication also highlights contemporary hydraulic technologies. Notable among these works were those of Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, a mechanical way of moving water. Natural light heated the water in a pair of concealed containers adjoining to the decorative fountain were displayed in an illustration. Actuating the fountain is heated water which expands and rises to close up the conduits. Concepts for pumps, water wheels, water features and garden ponds are also included in the publication.

Free Water Fountains in Berkley, California

Berkley, CA residents voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the first of its kind in the United States. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to motivate a lot more people to go with healthier options, such as water. Research was carried out to assure that residents of all races and economic classes had access to clean, working drinking fountains. Using data amassed by a mobile GPS app, researchers were able to determine the state of existing water fountains in Berkley. Researchers then used US Census data to find out more about the economic and racial elements that influenced the city. Comparisons were made between the location and demographic data, exposing whether class differences affected availability to clean, working water fountains. Each water fountain and the demographics of its bordering area were analyzed to reveal whether the location of the fountains or their standard of maintenance exhibited any connection to income, race, or other points. Some of the water fountains were not clean or blocked, in spite of the fact that a lot of fountains worked.

Water Features: A Fascination for Your Pets and Visiting Birds

Outdoor water features and bird feeders are a natural way to draw in wildlife and pets.

Birds must have water to drink, bathe in, as well a place to groom, or preen. There are some birds, like robins, thrushes, orioles, or warblers, which are not attracted to bird feeders, but are drawn to fountains because of the moving water. Many flying creatures appreciate running water instead of still water, thus making such outdoor features much more appealing than bowl shaped birdbaths. Trickling fountains that splash around are heard from far away, attracting even more birds.

Dogs are attracted to fountains because they provide refreshing water to drink. During hot months of summer, cats and dogs will be outside searching for the absolute freshest water around. Fountains generally need little cleaning due to their constantly streaming water, whereas birdbaths need to be regularly maintained because they easily collect debris.

The Appeal of Tiered Water Features

Gardens are popular places to display a multi-tiered fountain, a style which has historically been very fashionable.

The regions in the southern portion of Europe tend to have a lot of these types of fountains. While they can be located anywhere, they are most common in the center of building complexes and in popular areas where people gather. All multi-level fountains are beautiful, although some have much more lavish carvings than others.

Any area can be enhanced with one, even though a more conventional setting is sometimes more appropriate. The fountain should blend right into the environment as if it has been there since the outset.

Keeping Your Garden Fountain Tidy

Appropriate care and regular maintenance are important to the longevity of water fountains. A typical concern with fountains is that they tend to accumulate dirt and debris, so it is vital that you keep it free from this. Additionally, anywhere light from the sun mixes with still water, algae can form. To prevent this, take vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, or sea salt and add straight into the water. Some people opt for putting bleach into the water, but the problem is that it harms wildlife - so it should be avoided.

A thorough cleaning every 3-4 months is ideal for garden fountains. Before cleaning, all the water must be eliminated. Once it is empty, wash inside the reservoir with a gentle cleanser. Feel free to use a toothbrush if necessary for any smaller crevasses. Make sure all the soap is properly cleaned off.

Calcium and fresh water organisms can get inside the pump, so you should really disassemble it to get it truly clean. Letting it soak in vinegar for a couple of hours first will make it much easier to clean. Mineral or rain water, versus tap water, is ideal in order to avoid any build-up of chemicals inside the pump.

Lastly, make sure your fountain is always full by looking at it every day - this will keep it in tip-top condition. Low water levels can ruin the pump - and you do not want that!

Where are the Planet's Tallest Water Displays?

Located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, the King Fahd Fountain (1985) is the tallest continually-functioning fountain in the world. Reaching incredible heights above the Red Sea, this fountain propels water 260 meters (853 feet) in the air.

Coming in 2nd is the World Cup Fountain located in the Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002) with water shooting 202 meters (663 feet).

Located next to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri, is third placed Gateway Geyser (1995). With water reaching 192 meters (630 feet) in the air, this water fountain is the tallest in the U.S..

The next on the list is Port Fountain located in Karachi, Pakistan which rockets water 190 meters (620 feet) into the sky.

Number 4: Fountain Park (1970), Fountain Hills, Arizona - although it can reach heights of 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are operating, it only reaches 91 meters (300 feet) on a normal day.

The Dubai Fountain, opened to the public in 2009, is located near the Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest building. It performs every 1/2 hour to previously recorded music and shoots water up to 73 meters (240 feet) in height -it also has built in extreme shooters, though only used during special events, which reach 150 meters (490 feet) in height.

Constructed in 1970, the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, Australia, comes in at number 7 shooting water up to 147 meters (482 feet).

And at #8, we have the the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951), measuring 140 meters (460 feet).


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