Aspects of Outdoor Statuary in Archaic Greece

Up until the Archaic Greeks provided the very first freestanding statuary, a noteworthy triumph, carvings had chiefly been completed in walls and pillars as reliefs. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi, viewed by the Greeks to symbolize beauty, had one foot stretched out of a strict forward-facing pose and the male figurines were always nude, with a powerful, strong shape. In around 650 BC, the variations of the kouroi became life-sized. 50323rk__32750.jpg The Archaic period was an awesome point of change for the Greeks as they expanded into new forms of government, produced fresh expressions of art, and gained insights of the men and women and cultures outside of Greece. However, these conflicts did little to hinder the advancement of the Greek civilization.

The Circulation of Outdoor Garden Fountain Manufacturing Knowledge in Europe

The circulated papers and illustrated pamphlets of the day contributed to the development of scientific innovation, and were the primary means of dissiminating practical hydraulic information and water feature suggestions all through Europe. In the late 1500's, a French water fountain designer (whose name has been lost) was the internationally distinguished hydraulics leader. His know-how in creating gardens and grottoes with incorporated and imaginative water fountains began in Italy and with commissions in Brussels, London and Germany. He penned a book entitled “The Principles of Moving Forces” towards the conclusion of his lifetime while in France that became the essential book on hydraulic technology and engineering. Updating principal hydraulic discoveries of classical antiquity, the book also details contemporary hydraulic technologies. Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, had his work showcased and these integrated a mechanized way to move water. Sunlight heating up liquid in a pair of containers unseen in a room adjacent to an beautiful water fountain was displayed in one illustration. Activating the water feature is heated water that expands and rises to close up the conduits. The publication also covers garden ponds, water wheels, water feature designs.

The Globe's Biggest Water Features

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia has the leading continuously- running water fountain known as the King Fahd Fountain (1985). Reaching incredible heights above the Red Sea, this fountain propels water 260 meters (853 feet) in the air.

The World Cup Fountain located in the Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002), comes in 2nd place with water shooting up 202 meters (663 feet).

The Gateway Geyser (1995) situated next to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri is #3 on the list. Considered the tallest fountain in the United States, it propels water 192 meters (630 feet) into the sky.

The next on the list is Port Fountain located in Karachi, Pakistan which shoots water 190 meters (620 feet) into the sky.

Number 4: On a typical day the water is limited to 91 meters (300 feet) at the Fountain Park feature in Fountain Hills, Arizona, but it is capable of propelling water up to 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are working.

The Dubai Fountain, opened to the public in 2009, is located next to the Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest building. Once every half hour, this fountain begins dancing to pre-recorded songs while shooting water 73 meters (240 feet) high. It also has extreme shooters, rarely used, which go as high as 150 meters (490 feet).

Number 7 is the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, completed in 1970, propelling water 147 meters (482 feet) high.

And finally comes the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951) which measures 140 meters (460 feet) in height.

A Fountain Your Kitty Will Appreciate

Does hearing water flow from the tap make your cat come running? Do you find him guzzling toilet water or hesitating before drinking water from his own dish? Cats do not like to drink water that is not running, and this act shows this. They are not driven to drink water much at all.

Out in nature, cats eat meat full of moisture which keeps them sufficiently hydrated. For this reason, cats do not have a natural craving for much water. Nevertheless, cats which do not hunt in the wild need adequate hydration, so you need to be sure they have an adequate source.

With a cat fountain, you know your cat has plenty of water available.

Unlimited clean water will always be available to your pet if you install one. Fountains come in many shapes and sizes, so be certain to choose one that best fits the needs of your cat. One kind of fountain has continually flowing water for maximum freshness whereas others have water which is repeatedly refilled when the bowl is empty.

Water Features: The Minoan Civilization

On the Greek island of Crete, digs have discovered conduits of several types. In combination with offering water, they dispersed water which accumulated from deluges or waste material. Rock and terracotta were the ingredients of choice for these channels. Whenever terracotta was chosen, it was frequently for channels as well as conduits which came in rectangle-shaped or circular forms.

These consisted of cone-like and U-shaped terracotta piping which were unique to the Minoans. Clay conduits were used to distribute water at Knossos Palace, running up to three meters below the floors. The water pipes also had other uses such as gathering water and directing it to a central place for storage. In order to make this achievable, the pipelines had to be tailored to handle: Below ground Water Transportation: This particular system’s hidden nature may mean that it was originally created for some sort of ritual or to allocate water to restricted groups. Quality Water Transportation: Many historians think that these pipelines were employed to make a different distribution system for the residence.

Water Delivery Solutions in Historic Rome

Prior to 273, when the 1st elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in Roma, citizens who lived on hills had to journey even further down to collect their water from natural sources. Over this time period, there were only 2 other technologies capable of providing water to high areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which amassed rainwater. From the beginning of the sixteenth century, water was routed to Pincian Hill by way of the subterranean channel of Acqua Vergine. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Although they were primarily developed to make it possible to support the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi started using the manholes to get water from the channel, commencing when he obtained the property in 1543. The cistern he had constructed to collect rainwater wasn’t adequate to meet his water requirements.

To give himself with a more efficient system to obtain water, he had one of the manholes opened, providing him access to the aqueduct below his residence.


Early Crete & The Minoans: Wall Fountains
Fountains and Water and the Minoan Civilization They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. The main materials employed were stone or... read more
A Concise History of Outdoor Public Fountains
As initially developed, fountains were crafted to be functional, directing water from streams or reservoirs to the residents of towns and villages, where the water could be... read more
Where did Landscape Fountains Begin?
Contemporary fountains are used to adorn community spaces, honor individuals or events, and enrich recreational and entertainment events. read more
Modern Garden Decoration: Fountains and their Roots
Nowadays, fountains adorn public areas and are used to recognize individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs. read more